Mattel, with the help of San Francisco startup ToyTalk, recently released an Internet of Things (IoT) enabled Barbie doll that children can talk to, responding with over “8,000 lines of recorded content." To produce all of this content it relies on a constant connection to the internet.
Utilizing a user’s home Wi-Fi network, it sends audio recordings to ToyTalk’s servers for analysis and to generate a response. Every audio clip is stored in the cloud where parents can later review and share them online. This data being mined and used for marketing purposes is a big privacy concern, but so is the possibility of this data or the device itself being susceptible to hackers. However, Mattel assures users that they are “committed to safety and security”and that the doll “conforms to applicable government standards”. The release of the doll has already stirred up some controversy on the internet, but until now it has all been speculation.
As security researchers we thought it prudent to explore whether or not Mattel was able to achieve the level of privacy and security that they claim. If they did, then how? And if not, what implications are there for future devices? The first step was to disassemble the doll and identify the chips that might allow us to analyze the doll’s firmware.
Looking at the main circuit board, we identified a number of significant chips, modules, and signal connections.
At the far left of the topside of the board is the AzureWave AW-CU300E 802.11 b/g/n WiFi Microcontroller Module (M1), which builds upon the Marvell 88MW300. In a press release, Marvell pointed out that this module ”provides both the Wi-Fi connection as well as the microcontroller to run Hello Barbie firmware.” This means that the mainboard is composed of a Wi-Fi MCU System-on-Chip (SoC) where everything else connected to it is a peripheral. This is interesting because Marvell is essentially providing IoT board designers a simple Internet-ready drop-in module for all their devices. We can imagine lots of IoT devices being designed using these sorts of ready-made network computer modules in the future.
The Nuvoton NAU8810 24-bit audio codec (U1), is located on the lower-middle half of the board. It provides ADC, DAC, gain, and input/output mixers for both the doll’s microphone and speaker. It also has an I2C bus connector (J7) near the bottom-right corner.
The chip to the left of the AW-CU300E is a Gigadevice GD25Q16 16Mbit SPI Flash (U2), and is the system’s main non-volatile memory. This is where the doll's firmware and resource files are stored.
The other chips populating the board are most likely power related (battery charger, voltage regulator, etc.), as well as what looks like a JTAG connector (J110).
We immediately focused our attention on the flash memory chip...
We began dumping the contents of the 16Mbit flash chip, and some pretty neat stuff popped up. Stay tuned for Part Two, where we’ll dive into the architecture of the system and its security implications.
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